In the process of Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) fertilization, single sperm will be inject directly to single oocyte for solving sperm motility problem and increasing fertilization rate.
Before going to the fertilization process, SPERM PREPARATION will take place for selecting sperm. Qualified sperm can increase both fertilization rate and good quality of embryo, there are sperm preparation techniques as HA-ICSI and MACS sperm.
HA stands for Hyaluronan Acid which is one type of natural Protein surround the oocytes. HA-ICSI simulates as physiologic selector by dropping HA liquid on the sperm plate, normal sperm will be caught up and then be selected to fertilization process (ICSI).
Sperm concentration, morphology and motility analysis cannot detect Apoptotic Spermatozoa which is DNA fragmentation in sperm cells. DNA fragmentation negatively affect to the embryo cleavage, subsequent development of blastocyst arrest or early miscarriage.
Apoptotic Spermatozoa will be discarded by MACS sperm technique. Annexin A5 (Annexin V) is commonly used to detected apoptotic cells while passing through magnetic field via MACS Column. The apoptotic sperm will be stuck with magnetism and then Non-apoptotic spermatozoa remain for fertilization process afterwards.
Nowadays, Frozen Embryo Transfer or FET is suggested for IVF/ICSI treatment as providing more pregnancy rate than FRESH embryo transfer.
IVF refers to a technique of assisted reproduction where the egg and sperm are fertilized outside of the body to form an embryo. This embryo is then transferred to the uterus to implant and become a pregnancy.
Hysteroscopy is a procedure that allows a doctor to look inside the uterus in order to diagnose and treat causes of abnormal bleeding. The procedure can be either diagnostic or operative.